org.apache.commons.lang

Class WordUtils


public class WordUtils
extends Object

Operations on Strings that contain words.

This class tries to handle null input gracefully. An exception will not be thrown for a null input. Each method documents its behaviour in more detail.

Since:
2.0

Constructor Summary

WordUtils()
WordUtils instances should NOT be constructed in standard programming.

Method Summary

static String
abbreviate(String str, int lower, int upper, String appendToEnd)
Abbreviates a string nicely.
static String
capitalize(String str)
Capitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String.
static String
capitalize(String str, char[] delimiters)
Capitalizes all the delimiter separated words in a String.
static String
capitalizeFully(String str)
Converts all the whitespace separated words in a String into capitalized words, that is each word is made up of a titlecase character and then a series of lowercase characters.
static String
capitalizeFully(String str, char[] delimiters)
Converts all the delimiter separated words in a String into capitalized words, that is each word is made up of a titlecase character and then a series of lowercase characters.
static String
initials(String str)
Extracts the initial letters from each word in the String.
static String
initials(String str, char[] delimiters)
Extracts the initial letters from each word in the String.
static String
swapCase(String str)
Swaps the case of a String using a word based algorithm.
static String
uncapitalize(String str)
Uncapitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String.
static String
uncapitalize(String str, char[] delimiters)
Uncapitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String.
static String
wrap(String str, int wrapLength)
Wraps a single line of text, identifying words by ' '.
static String
wrap(String str, int wrapLength, String newLineStr, boolean wrapLongWords)
Wraps a single line of text, identifying words by ' '.

Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object

clone, equals, extends Object> getClass, finalize, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait

Constructor Details

WordUtils

public WordUtils()
WordUtils instances should NOT be constructed in standard programming. Instead, the class should be used as WordUtils.wrap("foo bar", 20);.

This constructor is public to permit tools that require a JavaBean instance to operate.

Method Details

abbreviate

public static String abbreviate(String str,
                                int lower,
                                int upper,
                                String appendToEnd)
Abbreviates a string nicely. This method searches for the first space after the lower limit and abbreviates the String there. It will also append any String passed as a parameter to the end of the String. The upper limit can be specified to forcibly abbreviate a String.
Parameters:
str - the string to be abbreviated. If null is passed, null is returned. If the empty String is passed, the empty string is returned.
lower - the lower limit.
upper - the upper limit; specify -1 if no limit is desired. If the upper limit is lower than the lower limit, it will be adjusted to be the same as the lower limit.
appendToEnd - String to be appended to the end of the abbreviated string. This is appended ONLY if the string was indeed abbreviated. The append does not count towards the lower or upper limits.
Returns:
the abbreviated String.
Since:
2.4

capitalize

public static String capitalize(String str)
Capitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String. Only the first letter of each word is changed. To convert the rest of each word to lowercase at the same time, use capitalizeFully(String).

Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null. Capitalization uses the unicode title case, normally equivalent to upper case.

 WordUtils.capitalize(null)        = null
 WordUtils.capitalize("")          = ""
 WordUtils.capitalize("i am FINE") = "I Am FINE"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to capitalize, may be null
Returns:
capitalized String, null if null String input

capitalize

public static String capitalize(String str,
                                char[] delimiters)
Capitalizes all the delimiter separated words in a String. Only the first letter of each word is changed. To convert the rest of each word to lowercase at the same time, use capitalizeFully(String,char[]).

The delimiters represent a set of characters understood to separate words. The first string character and the first non-delimiter character after a delimiter will be capitalized.

A null input String returns null. Capitalization uses the unicode title case, normally equivalent to upper case.

 WordUtils.capitalize(null, *)            = null
 WordUtils.capitalize("", *)              = ""
 WordUtils.capitalize(*, new char[0])     = *
 WordUtils.capitalize("i am fine", null)  = "I Am Fine"
 WordUtils.capitalize("i aM.fine", {'.'}) = "I aM.Fine"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to capitalize, may be null
delimiters - set of characters to determine capitalization, null means whitespace
Returns:
capitalized String, null if null String input
Since:
2.1

capitalizeFully

public static String capitalizeFully(String str)
Converts all the whitespace separated words in a String into capitalized words, that is each word is made up of a titlecase character and then a series of lowercase characters.

Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null. Capitalization uses the unicode title case, normally equivalent to upper case.

 WordUtils.capitalizeFully(null)        = null
 WordUtils.capitalizeFully("")          = ""
 WordUtils.capitalizeFully("i am FINE") = "I Am Fine"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to capitalize, may be null
Returns:
capitalized String, null if null String input
Usages and Demos :

View More Examples of capitalizeFully(String str)
   1: 
   2: import org.apache.commons.lang.WordUtils;
   3: 
   4:         ...
   5:     public static String capitalizeWords(String str) {
   6:         System.out.println("    [" + Main.class.getName() + "] capitalizing string \"" + str + "\" using " + WordUtils.class.getName());
   7:         ...
   8:         return WordUtils.capitalizeFully(str);
   9:     }

View Full Code Here

capitalizeFully

public static String capitalizeFully(String str,
                                     char[] delimiters)
Converts all the delimiter separated words in a String into capitalized words, that is each word is made up of a titlecase character and then a series of lowercase characters.

The delimiters represent a set of characters understood to separate words. The first string character and the first non-delimiter character after a delimiter will be capitalized.

A null input String returns null. Capitalization uses the unicode title case, normally equivalent to upper case.

 WordUtils.capitalizeFully(null, *)            = null
 WordUtils.capitalizeFully("", *)              = ""
 WordUtils.capitalizeFully(*, null)            = *
 WordUtils.capitalizeFully(*, new char[0])     = *
 WordUtils.capitalizeFully("i aM.fine", {'.'}) = "I am.Fine"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to capitalize, may be null
delimiters - set of characters to determine capitalization, null means whitespace
Returns:
capitalized String, null if null String input
Since:
2.1

initials

public static String initials(String str)
Extracts the initial letters from each word in the String.

The first letter of the string and all first letters after whitespace are returned as a new string. Their case is not changed.

Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null.

 WordUtils.initials(null)             = null
 WordUtils.initials("")               = ""
 WordUtils.initials("Ben John Lee")   = "BJL"
 WordUtils.initials("Ben J.Lee")      = "BJ"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to get initials from, may be null
Returns:
String of initial letters, null if null String input
Since:
2.2

initials

public static String initials(String str,
                              char[] delimiters)
Extracts the initial letters from each word in the String.

The first letter of the string and all first letters after the defined delimiters are returned as a new string. Their case is not changed.

If the delimiters array is null, then Whitespace is used. Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null. An empty delimiter array returns an empty String.

 WordUtils.initials(null, *)                = null
 WordUtils.initials("", *)                  = ""
 WordUtils.initials("Ben John Lee", null)   = "BJL"
 WordUtils.initials("Ben J.Lee", null)      = "BJ"
 WordUtils.initials("Ben J.Lee", [' ','.']) = "BJL"
 WordUtils.initials(*, new char[0])         = ""
 
Parameters:
str - the String to get initials from, may be null
delimiters - set of characters to determine words, null means whitespace
Returns:
String of initial letters, null if null String input
Since:
2.2

swapCase

public static String swapCase(String str)
Swaps the case of a String using a word based algorithm.
  • Upper case character converts to Lower case
  • Title case character converts to Lower case
  • Lower case character after Whitespace or at start converts to Title case
  • Other Lower case character converts to Upper case

Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null.

 StringUtils.swapCase(null)                 = null
 StringUtils.swapCase("")                   = ""
 StringUtils.swapCase("The dog has a BONE") = "tHE DOG HAS A bone"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to swap case, may be null
Returns:
the changed String, null if null String input

uncapitalize

public static String uncapitalize(String str)
Uncapitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String. Only the first letter of each word is changed.

Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null.

 WordUtils.uncapitalize(null)        = null
 WordUtils.uncapitalize("")          = ""
 WordUtils.uncapitalize("I Am FINE") = "i am fINE"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to uncapitalize, may be null
Returns:
uncapitalized String, null if null String input
Usages and Demos :

View More Examples of uncapitalize(String str)
   1: import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;
   2: import org.apache.commons.lang.WordUtils;
   3: import org.codehaus.groovy.grails.exceptions.RequiredPropertyMissingException;
   4:         ...
   5:     public String getFlowId() {
   6:         return WordUtils.uncapitalize(getName());
   7:     }
   8: 
   9:     public String getUri() {

View Full Code Here
   1: import org.apache.commons.lang.StringUtils;
   2: import org.apache.commons.lang.WordUtils;
   3: import org.codehaus.groovy.grails.scaffolding.DefaultGrailsScaffolder;
   4:         ...
   5:         super(clazz, CONTROLLER);
   6:         this.uri = SLASH + (StringUtils.isNotBlank(getPackageName()) ? getPackageName().replace('.', '/')  + SLASH : "" ) + WordUtils.uncapitalize(getName());
   7:         String defaultActionName = (String)getPropertyValue(DEFAULT_CLOSURE_PROPERTY, String.class);
   8:         if(defaultActionName == null) {
   9:             defaultActionName = INDEX_ACTION;

View Full Code Here

uncapitalize

public static String uncapitalize(String str,
                                  char[] delimiters)
Uncapitalizes all the whitespace separated words in a String. Only the first letter of each word is changed.

The delimiters represent a set of characters understood to separate words. The first string character and the first non-delimiter character after a delimiter will be uncapitalized.

Whitespace is defined by Character.isWhitespace(char). A null input String returns null.

 WordUtils.uncapitalize(null, *)            = null
 WordUtils.uncapitalize("", *)              = ""
 WordUtils.uncapitalize(*, null)            = *
 WordUtils.uncapitalize(*, new char[0])     = *
 WordUtils.uncapitalize("I AM.FINE", {'.'}) = "i AM.fINE"
 
Parameters:
str - the String to uncapitalize, may be null
delimiters - set of characters to determine uncapitalization, null means whitespace
Returns:
uncapitalized String, null if null String input
Since:
2.1

wrap

public static String wrap(String str,
                          int wrapLength)
Wraps a single line of text, identifying words by ' '.

New lines will be separated by the system property line separator. Very long words, such as URLs will not be wrapped.

Leading spaces on a new line are stripped. Trailing spaces are not stripped.

 WordUtils.wrap(null, *) = null
 WordUtils.wrap("", *) = ""
 
Parameters:
str - the String to be word wrapped, may be null
wrapLength - the column to wrap the words at, less than 1 is treated as 1
Returns:
a line with newlines inserted, null if null input

wrap

public static String wrap(String str,
                          int wrapLength,
                          String newLineStr,
                          boolean wrapLongWords)
Wraps a single line of text, identifying words by ' '.

Leading spaces on a new line are stripped. Trailing spaces are not stripped.

 WordUtils.wrap(null, *, *, *) = null
 WordUtils.wrap("", *, *, *) = ""
 
Parameters:
str - the String to be word wrapped, may be null
wrapLength - the column to wrap the words at, less than 1 is treated as 1
newLineStr - the string to insert for a new line, null uses the system property line separator
wrapLongWords - true if long words (such as URLs) should be wrapped
Returns:
a line with newlines inserted, null if null input